The ECIWO Theory Has a Theoretic Priority in the Clone Research of Mammal

(Published in Science and Technology Review, February, 2000.pp.10-13 in Chinese)

Yingqing Zhang
(Institute of ECIWO Biology, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100, and China)
 

1. THE ORIGIN AND SUMMARY OF THE THEORY OF THE CLONING OF MAMMAL

It is well known that at the beginning of the 20th century, Gottlieb Haberlandt put forward the theory of totipotency of plant cells. It states that cells of a plant keep the ability to develop a complete plant. In 1958, F. C. Steward got a cloned plant from the cell of the root of a carrot by tissue culture in vitro. Then, numerous plants can be cloned from cells. Now, the cloning of plant has important position in the human production and life. In the field of the cloning of plant, Haberlandt¡¯s theory holds the theoretical priority and holds an important status.

The scientific history of the cloning of animal is same with above history of the cloning of the plant. It was 12 years before Dolly's [1] debut that I put forward the theory that somatic cells of an adult of mammal have totipotency that means the potential ability to develop a new organism, and this totipotency can completely appear in some conditions. Clearly, in the field of the cloning of mammals, the theory has the theoretical priority and holds an important status in the scientific history.

In 1985, I pointed out that the somatic cell (clearly the cell can have full nuclear) of higher organism including mammal has the capacity of developing into a new whole organism. The somatic cell is a latent embryo. Deliberately created artificial conditions can help latent embryos also complete their development to the ultimate developmental stage, changing latent embryos into genuine embryos. In 1989, I also pointed out that the somatic cell of higher animal has totipotency and is the ECIWO (embryo containing the information of the whole organism).  The totipotency of ECIWOs can be very clearly shown in the extreme case of an ECIWO developing into a new individual. So many Years before Dolly, I pointed out that the somatic cells of an adult of mammal have totipotency and this totipotency can completely appear in some conditions.  This theory can be called as the theory of cloning of mammal.

My books and papers in which published above theory have English editions at that time or then. As the historical document for proving the scientific history, the status quo ante of quoted paragraphs from this original translations in 1991 or 1990 and the corresponding Chinese original published in 1985 are also shown in the scanner photos of Fig. 1 - 4.
I first put forward the theory of totipotency of higher animal cells in an article "An Outline of Holographic Biology" in Chinese with English summary [2] in a proceedings published by Shandong University Press in October of 1985(Fig. 1, A, B). In 1990, this article was translated into English and republished in the proceedings [3] of an international congress published by Higher Education Press in Beijing. In 1991, Section 1 of this article that states the theory of totipotency of higher animal cells was translated anew and republished in the English edition of one of my books [4].

2. THE MAIN POINTS OF TOTIPOTENCY QUOTED FROM MY 1985'S ARTICLE

Here, I think that it is necessary to quote my main ideas about totipotency of the somatic cell published about 15 years ago.

(1) Cells of an organism are holographic units.

In higher organism, the capacity of developing into a new whole organism is retained by holographic units of some specific regions (e. G. Zygote) and this capacity of the holographic units of other regions (e. G. Somatic cells) exists in a latent fashion: "In an organism, a relatively independent part that has relatively clear boundary in function and structure is named the holographic unit." "An organism is made up of holographic units that belong to different grades separately and have different differentiated degrees. Cells are the holographic units in the low and same grade and have similar functions." (Fig. 1,C)(Reference 2, pp.20-21)  In an organism with colonyness, "such small individuals similar in form and function constitute the whole colonial body. Each small individual has all the hereditary information to develop into a new whole organism, and moreover, a small individual is highly independent in the colony, thus each small individual develops in the direction of forming a new whole organism. Once a small individual break away from its mother body, it will further form a new complete organism. Thus each small individual has the properties of embryo. While in higher organism, the capacity of developing into a new whole organism is retained by holographic units of some specific regions and this capacity of the holographic units of other regions only exists in a latent fashion." (Fig.1,D)(Reference 2, p.5; Reference 4, p.133)

(2) Pan-embryoness and colonyness exist in the higher organism covertly and potentially

Each holographic unit of higher organisms is a latent embryo: "In a lower organism with very evident colonyness, each small individual constituting the colony is generally capable of developing into a new whole organism. In other words, each small individual can be regarded as an embryo. Therefore, embryos exist widely in the whole organism. I refer to it as pan-embryoness." (Fig. 2,A)(Reference 2, pp.4-5; Reference 4,132) "Pan-embryoness and colonyness of primary organisms are not completely lost in the higher organisms. They exist in the higher organisms covertly and potentially." (Fig.2, B)(Refrence 2, p.20) In a higher organism, " each holographic unit is a latent small individual specialized in a certain direction, i.e. each holographic unit is a latent embryo specialized in a certain direction. Thereby higher organisms have latent colonyness and pan-embryoness." (Reference 2, p.6; Reference 4, p.133)

(3) The holographic units of a multicellular organism are latent embryos

In mammals, deliberately created artificial conditions can help latent embryos also complete their development to the ultimate developmental stage, changing latent embryos into genuine embryos:  "We may consider the holographic units of various grades of a multicellular organism as latent embryos at various stages of development from holographic units on such low grades like that of the cell or nucleus toward new multicellular organism."  Fig.2,D) (Reference 2, p.6; Reference 4, p.133) "In mammals, apart from such special holographic units as genuine embryos, other holographic units cannot reach the ultimate stage of development, and as a result, they cannot form new whole organisms. These holographic units stop at different developmental stages. This is due to the fact that the highly unified whole organism exerts a restraining effect upon the independent and autonomous development of these holographic units. Besides, the adjusting and controlling effect of the whole organism on the genes of the various holographic units leads to various degrees of specialization of the holographic units to serve varied purposes of application and the specialization in turn checks the way of the development of these holographic units toward their later developmental stage. However, the latent embryoness of these holographic units make them manifest their holographic correspondence with the whole organism in physiological, pathological, biochemical, genetic and other biological properties. Deliberately created artificial conditions can help general holographic units apart from genuine embryos also complete their development to the ultimate developmental stage, changing latent embryos such as general holographic units into genuine embryos." (Reference 2, p.5; Reference 4, p.134; Reference 3, p.59) The "mammals" here obviously refers to adult mammals since they have both genuine embryos and latent embryos, i.e. other holographic units. And as stated above, a somatic cell is a holographic unit and latent embryo, so the last sentence of above quotation is exactly the prophecy of the cloned Dolly and other mammals.

3. THE IDENTITY BETWEEN "HOLOGRAPHIC UNIT" AND "ECIWO" IN MY WORKS

As can be seen, in the paper published in 1985, I pointed out that the holographic unit is a latent embryo, and the somatic cell of mammalian adult is a holographic unit. So a somatic cell of a mammalian adult is a latent embryo and has latent capacity of developing into a new individual. Thus I pointed out that a somatic cell of mammalian adult has totipotency.

In the original paper published in 1985, I used the word "holographic". The reason is that I discovered that each relatively independent part of an organism contains the information of the whole organism and this state is similar to the fact that a small fraction of a laser hologram contains the information of the whole hologram. In 1986, I renamed the terms and change the "holographic unit" to "ECIWO (Embryo Containing the Information of the Whole Organism)" to emphasize the embryonic character of holographic unit and to differentiate it from the word "holographic" in physics. I also changed "bio-holographic theory" to "ECIWO theory". [5,6] In January of 1987, I changed the English term "holographic biology" that I founded to "ECIWO biology"[7]. And these terms have been used in my publications since then and in the tree international congresses of ECIWO biology. (Fig. 4, D-M) [8-18]

In my book ECIWO Biology and Medicine [9] in English published in 1987, I wrote: "Somatic cells have totipotency because of DNA semiconservative replication and cell duplication from a zygote. A zygote can develop towards a new organism, and the somatic cells also have this developmental capacity."(Fig. 3, B) [Reference 9, p. xi] "Actually an organism is a clone consisting of ECIWOs. In a multicellular organism, a cell is the ECIWO at the lowest stage of development." (Fig. 3, C) [Reference 9, p. xii]

I wrote in the book ECIWO Biology published in 1989: "The somatic cells of no matter plants or animals, all have the capacity of developing into a new individual, i.e. they have totipotency. ¡­People think that the somatic cells of higher animal are not totipotent, but I maintain that the somatic cells of all multicellular organisms including higher animals all have totipotency in development." (Fig. 4, B) [Refrence 10, p. 112-113]

I further pointed out in the book New View of the Organism published in 1991: " The ECIWOs composing a human adult can be roughly divided into 7 types in correspondence with the 7 developmental stages on the developmental time axis. And each type of ECIWOs is basically similar in biological characters to the embryo or individual at the corresponding developmental stage. (1) ECIWOs of type one, namely ECIWOs of the zygote type, are the single somatic cells composing a human body." (Fig. 4, A) [Reference 12, pp. 14-15; Reference 13, pp. 15-16]  Namely, a somatic cell of a human adult has the basic property of zygote and it has the latent capacity of developing into a new individual, i.e., a somatic cell of a human adult has totipotency.

I once more pointed out the possibility of the cloning of mammals in the book ECIWO Biology published in 1989:" The property of totipotency of ECIWOs can be very clearly shown in the extreme case of an ECIWO developing into a new individual." (Fig. 4, C) [Reference 10, p. 115]

The objective reality that cells of adult mammals have totipotency is the prerequisite of the cloning of mammals. Thereby, the ECIWO theory revealing this objective reality is the theoretical basis of the cloning of mammals. In fact, the cloned sheep Dolly made the ECIWO theory fully substantiated.

REFERENCES
1. Wilmut, I. et al., Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells, Nature, 1997, 385, 810.
2. Y. Q. Zhang, paper "An Outline of Holographic Biology" in Holographic Biology Research (Shandong University Press, Jinan, China, 1985) pp.1-21, [in Chinese with English  summary].
3. Zhang Y Q, in T. T. Ang and Y. Shi, ed., Progress in ECIWO Biology and Its Applications to Medicine and Agronomy, in English, Proceedings of the First International Congress of ECIWO Biology, Higher Education Press, Beijing, 1990, 52-81.
4. Zhang Y Q, ECIWO and Its Application to Medicine, in English, Shandong Science and Technology Press, Jinan, China, 1991.
5. Y. Q. Zhang, Encyclopedic Knowledge, (October 1986, Beijing), [in Chinese]; English Edition translated by Z. Y. Hu in ECIWO and Its Application to Medicine (Shandong Science and Technology Press, Jinan, China, 1991) pp. 136-143.
6. Zhang Y Q, ECIWO and Its Application to Medicine, Shandong Science and Technology Press, 1991£¬ 136-143.
7. Y. Q. Zhang, Journal of Shandong College of traditional Chinese Medicine, 11, 1(1987) [in Chinese text with English abstract].
8. Y. Q. Zhang, Bio-holographic Diagnosis and Therapy (Shandong University Press, Jinan, 1987) [in Chinese]
9. Zhang Y Q, ECIWO Biology and Medicine£¬Neimenggu People¡¯s Press, Huhehaote, 1987.
10. Y. Q. Zhang, ECIWO Biology (Higher Education Press, Beijing, 1989) [in Chinese].
11. Y. Q. Zhang, ECIWO and Its Application to Medicine (Chinese Edition, Qingdao Publishing House, Qingdao, China, 1992;  English Edition, Shandong Science and Technology Press, Jinan, China,1991)
12. Y. Q. Zhang, New View of the Organism (Qingdao Publishing House, Qingdao, China, 1991) [in Chinese].
13. Zhang Y Q,  New View of the Organism, Peace Book Co. Ltd., Hong Kong, ,1992¡£
14. Y. Q. Zhang, New View of the Organism, (Peace Book Co. Ltd., Hong Kong, 1992) [in English, translated by Z. Y. Hu].
15. Proceedings of the First International Congress of ECIWO Biology, Singapore, May 12-13, 1990 (Higher Education Press, Beijing, 1990)
16. Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress of ECIWO Biology, Oslo, Norway, September 9-10, 1992 (Higher Education Press, Beijing, 1992).
17. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress of ECIWO Biology, Los Angeles, CA,  August 17-18, 1996 (Qingdao Publishing House, Qingdao, China, 1996)
18. Some original works of ECIWO theory can be found in the following web sites: http://www.eciwo.sdu.edu.cn
 

(Note: Zhang's paper (1985) and his above-mentioned books in which he reiterated the idea that somatic cells of a mammalian adult have totipotency have been selected into collections in many important libraries in the world. The book Holographic Biology Research in which Zhang (1985) first published his theory of totipotency of somatic cells of mammalian adult can be found in the Library of Congress of USA (LC Call No.: QH324.C498) and The British Library the UK's national library [Shelfmark: (P) CG 38 -X(1)]. The book, Progress in ECIWO Biology and Its Applications to Medicine and Agronomy: Proceedings of the First International Congress of ECIWO Biology, in which Zhang's paper from 1985 was republished in English (Zhang 1990a) can be found in University of Michigan Library (Call No: QP 277. I58x 1990), and in this book, the translations of two parts of Zhang's book published in 1989 are included (Zhang 1990b, c) in which Zhang reiterated the idea of totipotency of somatic cells of higher animals including mammal. English edition of Zhang's book, ECIWO Biology and Medicine (Zhang 1987c) can be found in the Library of Congress of USA  (No. RC270.8 .C47 1987), National Library of Medicine of USA (No.: WB 369 C456e 1987a), the British Library [Shelfmark:  (B) GQ 09] and Library of University of California at San Francisco (Call No.: RC270.8.C4513 1987).  Zhang's book, New View of the Organism: ECIWO Theory and Its Solution of Some Challenging Problems in the Frontiers of Medicine and Biology (Zhang 1992a) can be found in the British Library [Shelfmark  (B) CG 02] and Arizona State University Library (Call No.: QH430. C43x 1992). The Chinese editions of Zhang's papers and books (Zhang 1985, 1986, 1987a, 1987b, 1989, 1990d, 1991d, 1992b) can be found in most of the important libraries in China.)

Fig. 1 Photos (scanner photos) of the status quo ante from both my original publications in Chinese and their published English translations (I). (A and B) The cover and the English copyright page of Holographic Biology Research in which Zhang's paper was published in 1985 [2]. (C )Passages from the English Summary of the paper [2]. (D) Passages from the paper [2] in Chinese published in 1985 with corresponding passages from the English edition published in 1991[4].

 

Fig. 2 Photos (scanner photos) of the status quo ante from both my original publications in Chinese and their published English translations (II). (A, C and D) Passages from the paper [2] in Chinese published in 1985 with corresponding passages from the English edition published in 1991[4]. (B) Passages from the English Summary of the paper [2]

 
 

Fig. 3 Photos (scanner photos) of the status quo ante from both my original publications in Chinese and their published English translations (III) (A) Passages from the paper [2] in Chinese published in 1985 with corresponding passages from the English edition published in 1991[4]. (B and C) Passages from the English edition of my book published in 1987(9).

 

Fig. 4 Photos (scanner photos) of the status quo ante from both my original publications in Chinese and their published English translations (IV) (A) Passages from my book published in 1991 [12,13] (B and C) Passages from my book published in 1989 (10). (D to J) my 4 books in Chinese (8, 10-12)and 3 books in English(9, 6, 13). (K to M) Proceedings of the First (Singapore, 1990), Second (Oslo, Norway, 1992) and third (Los Angeles, USA, 1996) International Congress of ECIWO Biology. (3, 15, 17)

 



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