ECIWO Biology Institute of Shandong University


ECIWO: NEW DISCOVERIES OF THE UNITY AMONG THE DIFFERENT
STRUCTURAL UNITS OF AN ORGANISM
by Yingqing Zhang
(ECIWO Biology Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100, P. R. China. e-mail: eciwo@sdu.edu.cn
Fax: 0086-531-8566503 or 0086-531-8565167)
INTRODUCTION AND CHAPTER 1 OF THE BOOK:
ECIWO and Its Application to Medicine: New Discoveries of the Unity Among the Different Structural Units of an Organism and the Physiological or Pathological Correlation in a human Body, Shandong Press of Science and Technology, 1991, pp.1-2
 
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Photo in the front cover
INTRODUCTION
In the photo on the front cover of this book is an ordinary zebra. I have discovered that the distribution of the stripes of a zebra is of certain regularity. when I have marked the numbers of the stripes of the head, the neck, the trunk and the segmenta on the fore and the hind legs of the zebra, the photo of zebra will become surprising. It turn out that the numbers of stripes on these different relatively independent parts of the zebra are actually the same!
This fact and may other similar ones have persuaded me to made an important discovery, that is, the revealment of the unity among the different structural and functional units of an organism, such as the head, the neck and a segment of an animal,  or a leaf,  a branch and a petal of a plant, are in essence the same thing ECIWO (Embryo Containing the Information of the Whole Organism). An ECIWO is a specialized embryo at a certain stage of development, which is a component of an organism, or in common words, an ECIWO is a small individual living on the parent body, which has become an organ or a part of the parent body, An organism is composed of multilevel. ECIWOs at different stages of development and with different specialization. This has given a completely new view of the organism. It urges man to understand the organism anew. It will bring about a revolutionary conceptual change in the previous anatomy based understanding of the organism, and will exert an important revolutionary impact on medicine and other fields of science related to biology.
My another important discovery is that the various of each long bone segment (e.g. the second metacarpal segment) of a human body correspond to the various reigns of the whole body one to one ; there exists a physiological or pathological correlation between each pair of corresponding regions. The distribution of the correlated regions on each long bone segmentum is in an epitome-of-the-whole-body style. This has opened up a new orientation for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. That is, to diagnose and treat the diseases on the whole body through a long bone segmentum, such as the second metacarpal segmentum. This is the ECIWO diagnosis and therapy I have founded. This diagnosis and therapy has been applied successfully to over 100.000 cases in more than 30 countries.
CHAPTER 1
A New Discovery of the Unity Among the Different Structural Units of an Organism-The Different Structural Units of an Organism Are All ECIWOs. An ECIWO Is a Specialized Embryo at a Certain Stage of Development, Which Is a Component of an Organism. An Organism Is Composed of Multilevel ECIWOs at Different Stages of Development and with Different Specialization

1.1 ECIWO:A Specialized Embryo at a Certain Stage of Development in an Organism, Which Is a Component of an Organism

At the level above that cell, what is an organism composed of?
This seems to be a simplest and self-evident question, Obviously, a plant is composed of different organs and parts such as roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits, and an animal is composed of different organs and parts such as the head, limbs and internal organs. Such an answer is the basis of modern biology in its understanding of the organism.
However, I have discovered that, if we expand the original sense of embryo and refer to embryo generally as "a developmental unit developing toward a new individual or a small individual", then an organism is composed of numerous embryos. 2. An embryo has three characteristics: 1. Such an embryo lives on the parent body. 2. Such an embryo stays at a certain stage of development toward a new individual; in addition, in many circumstances, it stops its development at a certain stage of development and cannot continue to develop into a new individual living independently. 3. Such an embryo is specialized, so that it performs a certain function in an organism to serve the whole organism.
To distinguish it in terminology from the embryo in the previous sense. I name such an embryo constituting an organism as an ECIWO. The definition of an ECIWO is : A specialized embryo at a certain stage of development, which is a component of an organism. The standard to tell whither a certain part in an organism is an ECIWO is: An ECIWO has relatively clear boundaries to its surrounding regions in both structure and function. I have translated it into English as ECIWO, an acronym for Embryo Containing the Information of the Whole Organism.
The ECIWO theory can be summed up into the following 4 key points:
1. An ECIWO is a specialized embryo at a certain stage of development, which is a component of an organism. An ECIWO is first a relatively independent unit of development, and many also have different directions and different degrees of specialization, so they have the ability of boundless metamorphoses and can thereby become the different organs or parts of an organism.
2. The ECIWO is a universal structural and functional unit constituting an organism. An organism is composed of multilevel ECIWOs at different stages of development and with different specialization. In an organism any relatively independent part relatively clear boundaries to its surrounding regions in both structure and function is an ECIWO. A certain ECIWO can be divided into many ECIWO of lower levels. And many ECIWOs can compose an ECIWO of a higher. In a multicellular organism. Between the level of the individual whole body and the level of the cell, there exist ECIWOs contained grade by grade. An individual whole body is an ECIWO whose developmental degree is the highest, and a single somatic cell is an ECIWO whose developmental degree is the lowest. They are both special cases of the ECIWO.
3. A certain ECIWO develops from an ECIWO with a lower degree of development. In an organism coming from sexual reproduction, the common origin of all the ECIWOs is a zygote. Starting from cleavage, it is a process in development and specialization. The products. Namely new ECIWOs. Of each composed reproduction do not break away from the parent body. An organism is a clone composed of ECIWOs. The essence of the ontogenesis of an organism is the multiplication and the respective specialization of ECIWOs in the organism itself, a common natural culture medium.
4. In an organism. There exists constant substance exchange between different ECIWOs. So that the different ECIWOs in an organism may have basically the same living conditions and can coordinate with each other to serve whole body.
1.2 Evidences for the ECIWO Theory
To prove the ECIWO theory is. In the final analysis. To prove that in an organism any relatively independent part with relatively clear boundaries to its surrounding regions in both structure and function. Namely an ECIWO. Is a specialized embryo or a small individual and has the basic properties of an embryo or a small individual.
I have definitely proved the ECIWO theory by the following 12 factual observations.
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         Photos in the inner front cover
1. In its developmental course an ECIWO has the same dynamic character changes as a genuine embryo or a small individual in the corresponding developmental course; or in other words ,an ECIWO at a certain stage of development has recapitulated the developmental process of ontogenesis from a zygote to this stage of development. This has evidently proved in the developmental process of the ECIWO that an ECIWO is an embryo or a small individual. For example, the ontogenesis of the whole plant of common purslane (Portulaca oleracea) proceeds from the two-cotyledon seedling stage (photo I in the inner front cover) 4-leaf seedling stage (photo 2 in the inner front cover ), and then further to the multi-leaf seedling stage (photo 3 in the inner front cover). The three photos in the left column of the inner front cover (photos 1-3) are the plants of purslane in the three successive stages of development. It is to be noted that the dynamic character change in the development of such an ECIWO as a branch of purslane is the same as that in the ontogenesis of the whole plant of purslane. That is , it will also undergo the three developmental stages. First, the branch ECIWO also undergoes the two-cotyledon developmental stage. At this time, the branch ECIWO is a two-cotyledon seedling living on the on main plant. (photo 4 in the inner front cover is a seedling at the two-cotyledon seedling stage living on the main plant.) The next developmental stage of the branch ECIWO is the 4-leaf seedling stage. At this time the branch ECIWO is a seedling with 4 leaves living on the main plant (photo 5 in inner front cover). The further next developmental stage of the branch ECIWO is the multi-leaf seeding stage. At this time, the branch ECIWO is a seeding with many leaves, living on the main plant (photo 6 in the inner front cover). Thus, in the inner front cover, the three photos from above to below in the column show the ontogenetic process of the whole plant of purslane, while the three photos from above to below in the right column show that such an ECIWO as a branch of purslane, a relatively independent small individual or a small plant living on the main body of the whole plant, undergoes the same developmental process as the ontogenesis of the large plant. The ontogenesis of dicotyls all have a two cotyledon seedling stage and the subsequent developmental stages when the nomophylla germinate and the main stem extends, so a highly developed ECIWO of a dicotyl such as a branch also recapitulates such development of the individual whole plant, in which a pair of fore-leaves first germinate and then a branch sprouts. Photo 7 in the inner back cover is a new bud germinating from the main stem of a four-oclock (Mirabilis jalapa). Before a new branch sprouts, a pair of leaves grow out first This pair of leaves are the cotyledons of the branch, an ECIWO. Photo 8 in the inner back cover shows the developmental process of a branch of lilac ( Syringa vulgaris) recapitulating the ontogenesis of the whole plant. A leaf is an ECIWO or a small plant living on the main body, so a leaf also recapitulates a corresponding developmental process of ontogenesis. Photo 9 in the inner back cover is a seedling of water melon in the two-cotyledon seedling stage. It is to be noted that a three-lobed nomophylla of water melon is an ECIWO at a developmental stage equivalent to that when the whole plant of water melon has altogether three leaves, so this nomophylla is trifid; the two lobes at the left and right sides amount to a pair of cotyledons of this nomophylla ECIWO, and the middle lobe amounts to a nomophylla of this nomophylla ECIWO (Photo 10 in the inner back cover) It is precisely the same reason that leaves have lobes. For example, the leaf of London planetree (Platanus acerifolia in Photo 12 in the inner back cover).
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Photos in the inner back cover
The stipules of a generalized complete leaf are exactly a pair of cotyledons of the complete leaf ECIWO or a pair of cotyledons living on the main body. Photo 11in the inner back cover is a complete leaf of common floweringquince (Chaenomeles lagenaria). At the base of the leaf is a pair of stipules. In the leaf living on the main body. Photo 11in the inner back cover is a complete leaf of common floweringquince(Chaenomeles lagenaria). At the base of the leaf is a pair of stipules. In the leaf ECIWO, just like in the whole plant, it is also the case that the cotyledons namely the stipules first germinate, and then the leaf grows out. In a human body, the rudiments of the various organs in the embryonic stage all present a state of cell multiplication; later, cystic or cavitary structures appear. It is to be noted that this is precisely the case that ECIWOs such as the organs are recapitulating the developmental process of the cleavage and morula stages characterized by cell multiplication and the later cystic blastula stage or the cavitary gastrula stage in the process of ontogenesis.
2. Now that an ECIWO is an embryo, it is similar in total character to a genuine embryo at the same stage of development. In photo 4 in the inner front cover, the ECIWO composed of the pair of newly-sprouting fore-leaves is the same in total character as a seedling at the same developmental stage, the cotyledon-seedling stage (photo I in the inner front cover). In photo 5 in the inner front cover. The 4-leaf ECIWO living on the main stem is similar in total character to the seedling with 4 leaves living on the ground (photo 2 in the inner front cover). A multi-leaf ECIWO living on the main stem (photo 6 in the inner front cover) is the same in total character as a seedling with many leaves living on the ground (photo 3 in the inner front cover). In a dicotyl. In the embryonic stage when the two cotyledons are being formed. There is an invagination at the top of the whole embryo. A petal of many plants (e.g. photo 12 in the inner back cover, a petal of large flowered purslane ) is an ECIWO at the developmental stage equivalent to of the ontogenetic stage when there is an invagination at the top of the whole embryo. So that the of the petal is concave A human cancer is a specialized embryo. Namely an ECIWO, at the cleavage or morula developmental stage. So it has the properties of a genuine embryo at this embryonic stage, such as rapid cell division, no differentiation and no clear boundaries. A cancer is an ECIWO whose development has stopped at cleavage or morula developmental stage. This is the nature of cancer. I have discussed this problem in my three other monographs[1-3] , so its discussion is omitted here.
3. A genuine embryo is a relatively independent life, and has automacity of life. This is an important characteristic of an embryo as a new individual. It is to be noted that an ECIWO is also a relatively independent life. So ECIWOs such as the finger, hand, liver, kidney and heart can still survive when separated from the main body. This makes the reconstruction and transplantation of organs possible. A bud or a scion of a plant can survive upon grafting. This also because an ECIWO such as a bud or a scion has a relatively independent life of its own.
4. A genuine embryo can stop its development at a certain stage and no longer develops forward, such as the dormancy of seeds and the diapause of insects. Like a genuine embryo, an ECIWO can also stop its development at a certain stage and no longer develops forward. In fact, many ECIWO have stopped their development at certain developmental stages and no longer develop toward new individuals; besides, they have specialized, so they have become the parts or organs of the whole organism. For example, a plant's petal with an invagination at the top is an ECIWO which has stopped development at the embryonic stage of the formation of the cotyledons with invagination at their tops. An ECIWO such as a leaf has stopped its development at either the cotyledon-seedling stage or at the nomophylla seeding stage. Of course, a leaf may also have a relatively high degree of development to flower or fruit on itself such as the plant Japan helwingia (Helwingia japonica). A human long bone segment stops development at the embryonic developmental stage with the existence of an axial primitive bone and no longer develops forward so that each segment also has an axial long bone. Any factors that can the developmental stop of an embryo can also cause the developmental stop of an ECIWO, a kind of specialized embryo, of an organism of the same species. For example, the lack of water can cause the developmental stop of a seed, and it also causes the developmental stop of an ECIWO such as a bud. In a human being, X-rays and alpha-rays may cause the developmental stop of an embryo, so they cause microcephalia [4], correspondingly, X-rays and -rays may also cause the developmental stop of ECIWOs. In a human body, if an EICWO stops development at the cleaveage or morula stage, then it is a cancer. For another example, herpes simplex virus can cause developmental stop. And can cause deformities such as microcephalia, microphthalmia and retinal aplasia [5] . So herpes simplex virus can also inhibit the development of ECIWOs. I n a human body, if an ECIWO stops development at the cleavage of morula stage, it induces a cancer. True, facts do tally with this conclusion. Z. H. Naib's discovery in 1996 can support this conclusion of mine. He used cytological and histopathological to examine the incidence of cervical carcinoma among patients of genital perpes, and found that the incidence of cervical carcinoma among such patients was 4 times higher than that among general in-patients. Later, with seroepidemiololgical methods, some researchers found that the genital herpes viral infections in females were closely related to cervical carcinoma[6].
5. A genuine embryo has the property of development. Before it reaches the stage of its developmental stop, an ECIWO also has the property of development. The development of a leaf or a branch of a plant or an of an animal has been discussed previously. In addition, some ECIWOs whose development has stopped ca also continue to develop under certain conditions. For example, the development of a genuine seed. Any factor that can an ECIWO. Any factor that can inhibit the development of a genuine embryo can also promote the development of an ECIWO. Any factor that can inhibit the development of an embryo can also inhibit the development. If iodine is deficient in deficient in the diet of a pregnant woman, or if she has taken some antithyroid agents, the baby's height and cerebral development will be affect, and the baby will be a cretin. When a tadpole loses its thyroxin, it will continue to grow without metamorphasing. On the other hand, when a tadpole loses is fed with thyroxin, it will metamorphose ahead of time. According to W," the thyroid is unique in its relationship to metamorphosis."(7) .it is to be noted that thyroxin can also promote the development of ECIWOs and reduce the chances of ECIWO developmental stop at the cleavage or morula staga stage, thus reducing the risk of the incidence of cancer. Hyperthyroids had a much lower incidence of breast cancer than those euthyroidism, while incidence of breast cancer than those with euthyroidism, while breast cancer occurred concomitantly in 24.9% of patients suffering from simple goiter.[8]
6. A genuine embryo has regulativity, and an ECIWO also has regulativity. When an embryo at an early stage is cut into several halves, can be regulated into a complete new embryo. This has been roved by the numerous experiments of the cutting of animal embryos. In the case of an ECIWO such as the heart, if at the early stage of its development (the rudiment stage) it is separated, then it will develop into several hearts. For example, it was reported that, in a chicken embryo, with each other, they could not combine with each other, they could develop into two hearts[9]. Verocay reported that a hen had been found to have 7 hearts of approximately equal size[10]. The repairment of any injury and the regeneration of any organ in an organism is due is due of the ECIWO at the injured region.
7. The development of a genuine em corresponding to the various regions of the future whole organism. This is an important expression of an embryonic property. It is to be noted that the development of an ECIWO is also mosaic, and an ECIWO has a fate map corresponding of the carious regions of the whole organism. This is also an important expression of the embryonic of an ECIWO. For example, the development of a leaf is mosaic. Photo 13 in the inner back cover is a leaf of London planetree.
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Photos in the back cover
Under the big leaf in the center of the photo there is a small leaf which has ; either of them has three lobes. The area of the big leaf is 37 times that of the small one ; that is to say, a leaf can extend its area mosaically by at least 37 times. The ECIWO in the same organism have the same origin, so in an organism the isonymous regions in the fate maps of two ECIWOs share a greater extent of similarity in biological properties. I have termed this the bio-holographic law. An individual whole organism is also an ECIWOs and the whole organism. I have discovered that' an ECIWO such as such long bong bone segment. Of a human body has an epitome-of-the-whole-body fate map. When a certain region of a human body is affected by a disease, the organism will produce antibodies to the rocal region. Owing to the circulation of body fluids. Such antibodies are widespread in the body, so the antibodies will also attack the regions isonymous with the focal region in the fate maps of the maps of the various long bone segmenta. The reason is that such isonymous regions and the focal region have a similar biological property, namely similar antigenicity. Such isonymous regions will have inflammatory reaction and become pathological reaction points. Therefore, by examining the presence or absence and the location of a pathological reaction point on a long bone segment, it can be diagnosed whether and where there is a disease in the whole body. The electroeciwograph for diagnosis I invented can be used to find out pathological reaction points. (The invention was awarded the highest prize of the 80th Paris International Fair of Inventions---prix de la Mairie de Paris.) This apparatus can make an automatic scanning examination on the second metacarpal side from the head region to the foot region in the fate map of the ECIWO of the second metacarpal side of a human hand, and synchronously record a potentiometric curve reflecting the dectric resistance differences of the various regions. An analysis of the presence of the presence or absence and the location of any high peak region in the curve can determine whether and where there is a disease in the whole body. Acupuncturing the pathological reaction points can produce a new immune cross reaction in the organism to eliminate the immunosuppression or immunohypersensitivity. And cure the disease at the focal region The fate map of an ECIWO such as each long bone segment is precisely the map of the holographic law of distribution of correlated regions of the map of the holographic law of distribution of acupoints (For detailed discussion, see Chapter 2.) Such maps have been tested, verified and applied by doctors in nearly 30 countries. They have been used in over 340,00 cases of the diagnosis and treatment of more than 150 kinds of diseases. The fate map of a highly developed ECIWO of an animal is an animal is an epitome of the whole organism; sometimes this can be seen from the external appearance of an animal. For example. The main body (trunk) of a zebra has 11 stripes. And each long bone segment or relatively independent part also has 11 stripes (Front cover). In the case of plants. The distribution of bio-chemical sub-stance is also consistent with the bio-holographic law.

With the above 7 aspects, an ECIWO is compared with a genuine embryo or a small individual. In the various chief properties, an ECIWO is similar to a genuine embryo or a small individual. The numerous new facts I have discovered in these 7 aspects are sufficient to show that an ECIWO is a specialized embryo at a certain stage of development. Furthermore, I have found from the following 3 aspects the transitional links between the most distinct and the most indistinct expressions of the embryonic properties of the ECIWO. Consequently, the conclusion that an ECIWO without fairly distinct external expression of embryonic properties is a specialized embryo is rendered acceptable.

8. The reasonableness of the existence of ECIWOs viewed in terms of phylogenesis. It might seen difficult to accept that in a higher such as a human being each relatively independent part with relatively clear boundaries to its surrounding regions in both structure and function is an ECIWO. However. The existing lower animals of different varieties can be regarded as the descendants of higher animals' lineal ancestors at the different stages of the evolution of higher animals. So having analyzed the evident expressions of the embryonic properties of ECIWO in the existing lower animals implies that we have also analyze the evident expressions of the embryonic properties of ECIWOs in the lineal ancestors of higher animals; then it will not be difficult to accept the reasonableness of the existence of ECIWO in higher animals.
In the colonial whole body of lower animals, each ECIWO, namely each zooid. Is a complete small individual belonging to the colony. This is extremely obvious. It is the case with the colonies of protozoa and Spongia. When freshwater hydra reproduces by gemmipary, each ECIWO such as each young individual hydra formed from the development of a somatic cell in the parent body is a small individual with evident embryonic properties (Fig.1.1).
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Fig.1.1 Such an ECIWO as each small hydra in the main body of a hydra is a small individual with evident embryonic properties.
In the phylum Platyhelminthes, the planaria can split up by means of transverse fission, and each new individual, when not yet separated from the mother body, is an ECIWO with evident embryonic properties, Microstomrm lineare usually reproduces by means of asexual transverse fission. When spit, the individuals do not separate but are usually connected with each other in a string; on certain there can be 18 individuals in one string. It is the same case with Slenostomum (Fig.1.2).
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Fig. 1.2 An ECIWO of Slenostomum is a small individual with embryonic properties.
When a 10-centimeter-long helminth of Lineus socialis had been cut into 100 pieces. Each of them developed into a complete helminth[11]. In annelids, homonomous segmentation is an evident external expression of the embryonic properties of ECIWO. In lower chordates which belong to the same phylum as the human being such ad sea squirt (Fig.1.3),
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Fig. 1.3 The evident embryonic properties of the ECIWOs of Clavellina
ECIWOs can still distinctly express their ECIWO embryonic properties by way of developing in the parent body into new individuals. Thus. Viewed in terms of phylogenesis, there can exist ECIWOs With very evident embryonic properties in all phyla from the lowest protozoa up to the highest Chordata. Or in other words. In the phylogenetic tree of evolution, the ECIWOs of the species on most branches and twigs have evident expression of embryonic properties, and the existence of ECIWOs is reasonable in all the cases. Then it would be inconsistent to suppose existence of ECIWOs to be unreasonable in higher mammals, such as the human being which constitutes nothing more than a very tiny in the phylogenetic tree of evolution.
9. The reasonableness of the existence of ECIWOs viewed in terms of ontogenesis. In the early stage of the embryonic development of higher animals, the embryonic properties of ECIWOs can be said to be strikingly evident. Asexual reproduction is a process in which somatic cells directly develop into new ECIWOs or new individuals in the parent body, so it is the most conspicuous expression of the embryonic property of ECIWOs. In many mammals, the asexual reproduction of early embryo has been realized by means of artificial slicing of an embryo; while identical twins or identical multiplets of mammals including the human being is an external expression of this ability of asexual reproduction in natural conditions. What is more, in amniotes including the human being, a blastula (2nd week after fertilization) developing from a zygote does not continue to directly develop into a new individuala new individual; a new individual develops from a part in a blastula, that is from such an ECIWO as the embryonic disk between the amniotic sac the yolk sac. This is the asexual reproduction of ammiotes at the blastula stage. Thus, it is clear that higher animals including the human being have the ability of asexual reproduction at their early embryonic stage. Then it is easy to accept that at the relatively early or relatively late stages of their embryos, they have the ability to reproduce asexually or small individuals (namely ECIWOs) whose development may stop at certain developmental stages.
In fact, embryology has made it clear that the formation of the rudiments of the various basic internal and external structures in accomplished in the 3rd to the 8th weeks of the embryonic development. After this stage, the formation of the brain, the heart, the livers, the sometomes, the four limbs, the ears, the nose, the eyes and other structures has made the embryo possess the morphological characteristics of a human being. Since we can admit the asexual reproduction ability of the embryo at the 2nd week, then, the assumption that this ability abruptly disappears at the 3rd to the 8th weeks is evidently unreasonable. At the 3rd to the 8th weeks this ability still exists to a limited extent. The new embryos produced in this stage can only stop their development at certain developmental stages and specialize to become the organs and parts of a human body.
10.There exist transitional links between ECIWOs with distinct and indistinct external expressions of embryonic properties, so that it is easy to accept that ECIWOs whose external expression of embryonic properties is not that distinct are specialized embryos of small individuals. Many ECIWOs have revealed themselves in their morphological characteristics to be new individuals living on the parent bodies, such as the tillers of the plants of the family Graminease. The complete small plants of orchid (photo 14 in the inner back cover ) living on the shoots of the main poant of a pendulum orchid (Chlorophytum capense) and growing in the air with aerial roots. The branches with thick and large aerial roots at their bases in a banyan fig (Ficus benghalensis ) (photo 15 in the inner back cover). Or each joint with a big aerial root in Vanda joaquim. These are conspicuous expressions of the embryonic properties of ECIWOs. It is to be noted that there exist a series of transitional links between the most distinct expression of embryonic properties and the most indistinct expression of embryonic properties. The leafed joints at the middle lower regions of the main stalk of Vanda joaquim have aerial roots. The embryonic properties of the small individual properties of ECIWOs such as the leafed joint ECIWOs have found conspicuous external expression. But the leafed joints in the upper region of the main stalk have no aerial roots. As there are the leafed joints in the middle and lower regions of the main stalk for contrast and transition. It is still acceptable to say that the leafed joints in the upper regions are ECIWOs or small individuals or small plants living on the main plant. For another example. ECIWOs such as each leaf or each branch of large flowered purslane all have distinct properties of a small individual. Because at the bases of all these ECIWOs there exist metamorphic aerial roots-long pubescence (photo 17 in the inner back cover). So that a leaf and a branch are both complete small plants with roots and leaves living on the main plant. In the case of common purslane which belongs to the same genus and is closest in affinity to the large flowered purslane, though metamorphic aerial roots no longer exist at the base of a leaf or a branch, we should still be able to realize that it is a small plant living on the main body, only it no longer has metamorphic aerial roots owing to specialization (photos 4, 5 and 6 in the inner front cover). Therefore, it is easy to accept that a leaf of a branch of an ordinary plant is a specialized small plant or an embryo living on the main plant.
The proofs in the following two aspects are universally acknowledged results of experiments already completed by our predecessors. Such experimental results show the origin of ECIWOs. That is, ECIWOs are embryos from somatic cells.
11. In an organism, the various regions gave numerous differences in both morphology and function, but generally speaking, a diploid somatic cell the same genome as the zygote. In 1964 McCathy and Hoyer carried out DNA-DNA recombinant experiments. Their experimental results showed that the DNA extracted from the embryo, brain, kidney, thymus gland, spleen and liver of mice had no difference in the ability to compete with the (marked) L cell DNA of mice for the complementary conjunction region in the embryonic DNA of mice. Such experiments show that each somatic cell has all the polynucleotide sequences of DNA, and all the sequences occur in the same relative proportion.[12] In the early 1970s, R. J. Britten[13], D. E. Kohne and Byers[14] further proved within an accuracy scope of ± 5-10% that all the tissues of an organism indeed had the same single-copy sequences. These experiments have provided the foundation for a somatic cell to develop in the parent body into a specialized embryo at a certain stage of development.
12. In isolated conditions. In artificial mediums (for plants) or in denucleated eggs (for animals) the somatic cells of many plants and animals can develop into embryos or new individuals. This has in fact provided experimental in isolated conditions for the conclusion that a somatic cell can develop in a natural medium such as the parent body into a specialized embryo at a certain stage of development. In the case of animals, mice[15] have been reproduced asexually by means of transplanting somatic cells into denucleated eggs. In the case of plants. Since F. C. Steward obtained in isolated tissue culture new plants from the single cells of carrot in 1958[16], the somatic cells of numerous plants have been successfully made to develop into embryos or small plants.
1.3. The Theoretical and practical significance of the ECIWO Theory
In the middle of the 19th century, before Darwin established the evolution theory, people were understanding the different species in the organic world in the separational way, laying stress on the diversity among the species. Darwin broke the absolute boundary among species and brought a revolution in man's understanding of the organic world. Now, man's understanding of the organism, a "small organic would ", is quite similar to the mid-19th century's understanding of the organic world. Before the ECIWO theory, people were understanding the different parts of an organism in the separational or anatomical way, laying stress on the diversity among the different parts of an organism. The ECIWO theory has broken the absolute boundary among the different parts of an organism. Revealing that the different parts of an organism are all specialized embryos or small individuals. Namely ECIWOs. Though they may differ greatly in morphology or function. We may safely say that the ECIWO theory will bring about a fundamental and conceptual change in man's anatomy-based understanding of the organism. And that many challenging problems in biology and medicine can be solved from a new angle.
The cell theory is a most important discovery in the 19th century. We can hardly imagine how to understand organisms and how to obtain today's development in biology and medicine had there not been the cell theory. Now the ECIWO theory has established that a single somatic cell is a kind of ECIWO. And a special case of the ECIWO. The cell is included in the ECIWO. So the cell theory is also included in the ECEWO theory and is seen as a special case of the ECIWO theory, Then. As the cell theory occupies so important a position in the history of life science. The important position of the ECIWO theory in the history of life science is self-evident.
The revolutionary influence of the ECIWO theory on the various fields of biology and medicine can be perceived in a series of other discoveries and other theories based on the ECIWO theory which I have published in my other works and papers the following is a list of my other discoveries of theories. Appendix 7 of this book contains the titles of original papers and works publishing these discoveries and theories.
1. The law of distribution of physiologically or pathologically correlated regions in a human body and its mechanism: the law of distribution of acupoints and the ECIWO theory.
2. The law of distribution of correlated regions on generalized organisms and its mechanism: the bio-holographic law and the ECIWO theory.
3. The mechanism of correlated variation.
4. The theory of the universal prototype of the various regions constituting an organism; the ECIWO theory.
5. The theory of the dynamic equilibrium between cDNA retrojoining to DNA and cDNA loss from DNA in an genome.
6. The theory that a genome contains multilevel units corresponding to the development of ECIWOs of various grades; the subgenome theory.
7. The mode of cell proliferation apart from cell division---the theory of sub-genome amplification to form new genomes and to construct cells.
8. The theory and procedures of the trans-genocombination engineering for the strengthening of the desired character (genocombination = gene combination ).
9. The theory of the construction of individuals by the ECIWO compound following development.
10. The contributions of the ECIWO compound following development to evolution.
11. The theory of existence of a certain organ in the various ECIWOs of an organism: the pan-organ theory.
12. The identification response of many scattered homogeneous targets a widespread action: pan-cybernetics and biological pan-cybernetics.
13. The ECIWO localized seed selection and the ECIWO timed seed selection to take seeds at the region and time with the strongest expression of the desired character in an ECIWO.
14. The theory of the nature of cancer: A cancer is a specialized embryo, namely an ECIWO, in diapause (development stop ) at the cleavage or the morula developmental stage.
15. The molecular mechanism of carcinogensis: the non-expression of specialized genes. Cellular oncogenes are in effect but housekeeping whose transcript are in effect long lived mRNA or parent mRNA.
16. A new strategy to treat cancer: To promote the development of a cancer to break its diapausic state at the cleavage and morula stages make it reach the blastula and later stages, thus normalizing it.
17. The treatment of cancer from the molecular angle: To promote DNA transcription and meantime inhibit DNA replication and inhibit cell division.
18. The theory of taking the success or failure to promote the development of an ECIWO or of a genuine embryo as the discrimination reaction for the screening of anticancer drugs.
19. The theory of taking the success or failure to inhibit the development of a genuine embryo or of an ECIWO as the discrimination reaction of oncogenic factors.
20. The theory of the immunologic hypersensitivity caused by HIV and adjuvants in the mechanism of AIDS.
21. The ECIWO therapy for AIDS.
22. The modern biological explanation for acupuncture therapy and acupuncture anesthesia; the effect of the second type of autoimmune cross reaction.
23. ECIWO diagnosis (bio-holographic diagnosis ):A method to diagnose the disease in the whole body through an ECIWO.
24. ECIWO therapy (ECIWO acupuncture or bio-holographic therapy):A method to acupuncture a certain acupoint on an ECIWO to treat the disease at its correlated region in the whole body.
25. Electroeciwograph: A device to scan automatically over the second metacarpal side of a human hand for 15 seconds to determine whether and where and there is a disease in the whole body.
26. The founding of ECIWO biology. And the establishment of the theoretical system of ECIWO biology. ECIWO biology is a scientific study of the life phenomena of ECIWOs.
So far. ECIWO diagnosis and therapy has already been applied in over 30 countries to the diagnosis and treatment of over 100.00 cases of diseases. The ECIWO localized seed selection gas been applied in many provinces of China and has produced remarkable yield-raising effect. For example in the three years 1988.1989 and 1990. Linyi prefecture of Shandong proving applied my ECIWO localized seed selection. And the increase of the crops yield thus achieved amounted to 1.58 million RMB yuan.
1.4. The Time of the Publication of My New Discovery of the Unity Among the Different Structural Units of an Organism.
My new discovery of the unity among the different structural units of an organism was first published in 1974 in my book the Materialistic principles of Acupuncture Anesthesia and Critique of Pavlovian physiology and Modern Anatomy published by the institute of scientific and Technological of Wulanchabu League Neimenggu Autonomous Region. In this book, I wrote clearly:The previous biological science had already seen that every biological individual manifests longitudinally (in embryonic development) the evolutional process of this organism from lower to higher levels. Being a minified picture of the history of this organism. Now we should see more clearly that every adult organism also manifests transversely (in adult composition) the evolutional process of this organism from lower to higher levels. It is also a minified picture of the history of this organism. The latter is the logical complement to the former". Since 1980, I have published a series of papers on the discovery of the unity among the different parts of an organism (See Appendix 7 of this book).In a paper published in 1985 (Appendix 5 of this book ), I pointed out: "we may consider the holographic units of various grades of a multicellular organism as latent embryos at various stages of development from holographic units on such low grades like that of the cell or nucleus toward new individuals". In mammals, apart from such special holographic units as dominant embryos, namely. Genuine embryos other holographic units cannot reach the ultimate stage of development. And as a result. They cannot form new whole organisms. These holographic units stop at different developmental stages. The is due to the fact that the highly unified whole organism exerts a restraining effect upon the independent and autonomous development of these holographic units. Besides, the adjusting and controlling .effect of the whole organism on the genes of various holographic units leads to various degrees of specialization. Of the holographic units to serve varied purposes of application and the specialization in turn checks the way of the development of these holographic units toward their later developmental stages."General holographic units like a second metacarpal segment system of a human body latent embryos that live in the main body. A culture medium." In a paper I Published in 1986(Appendix 6), I formally termed a holographic unit as an ECIWO, and pointed out that an ECIWO is an embryo at a certain stage of development toward a new individual";an ECIWO is in effect a newly-discovered functional unit in an organism. An ECIWO also has two lives: one belongs to the ECIWO itself which is developing autonomously toward a new individual. And the other belongs to the whole organism An ECIWO is not only a structural unit under the control of the whole organism but also a relatively independent unit with autonomous "; "An organism is composed of ECIWOs at different stages of development and in varying degrees of specialization; in an organism. Highly developed ECIWOs are made up of lowly developed ECIWOs In a multicellular organism. A cell is an ECIWO whose developmental degree is the lowest; so the cell theory can be seen as a special case of the ECIWO theory." Up to then, the discovery of ECIWO and the ECIWO theory had had a fairly complete form. Since 1987, I have further published several monographs and many papers (see Appendix 6 of this book ), having further verified the existence of ECIWOs. Further studied the properties of ECIWOs. Further studied the profound influence of the discovery of ECIWO on biology, medicine, agronomy and many other fields, and further including medicine, agronomy. Molecular biology, zoology. Botany. Evolutionism and developmental biology.
References
[1] Zhang Yingqing, Bio-holographic Diagnosis and Therapy, Shandong University press (1987).
[2] Zhang Yingqing, A New View of the Organism: The ECIWO Theory and Its solution of some challenging problems in the frontiers of biology and medicine. Qingdao publishing House (1991)
[3] Zhang Yingqing ECIWO biology and Medicine Neimenggu people's press (1987).
[4] Hicks, S. P.and C. J. D Amato Adv. Teretol I (1996) 195.
[5] South, M . A. et al .J. Pediatr 75 (1969) 13.
[6] Aurelian. L, et al science. 181 (1973) 161-164
[7] Etkin, W. Anlysis of Development (Edited by B. H. Wollier et al ) W. B. Saunders Company. Philadelphia and London (1959) 634.
[8] Zhang Zhiyi (edited).The Basic Clinical Research of Malignancy. Shanghai scientific and Technological Literature press(1985)135.
[9] Graper, L. Roux' Arch Entr-mech. 24 (1907) 375.
[10] Verocay, Multiplicitas cordis (Heptocardia) bei einem Huhn. Verhandl. Der Deutschen pathol. Ges.Erg Heft. 16 (1950)192.
[11] Worontsowa, W.A. et al Asexual Reproduction and Regeneration Chinese edition. Translated by Li Yan. China science press (1962) 192-193.
[12] Mecarthy. B.J. and B.H Hoyer. Proc Natl. Acud. Sei U. S. A. 52 (1964) 915 .
[13] Britten. R. J. In Evolution of Genetic systems"(H. H. Smith. Ed. ) Gordon and Breach. New York (1972) 80.
[14] Kohne. D. E. and M. J . Byears. Biochemistry,12 (1973)2373.
[15] Mckinnell, R. G. Cloning. University of Minnesota press (1979)
[16] Steward, F. C .Endeavor.29 (1970) 117.

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